Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2019, Page: 23-28
Assessing Sustainable Tourism: Trends and Efforts in Essaouira in Morocco as a Coastal City
Hadach Mohamed, School of Technology, Essaouira, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh, Morocco
Ed-Dali Rachid, School of Technology, Essaouira, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh, Morocco
Received: Mar. 16, 2019;       Accepted: Apr. 17, 2019;       Published: May 30, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijsmit.20190501.14      View  907      Downloads  228
Tourism is a crucial source and an added value in many developing countries. In Morocco, the sector is of paramount significance with a national GDP of about 20% and its effects have become noticeable. The methodology which is used in this study is qualitative while the data is analyzed according to a process-based approach in two longitudinal periods, from 2001 to 2009 and from 2010 to 2014. Through a process-based longitudinal study, the effects of tourism were analyzed highlighting the three pillars of sustainability, namely the economic, environmental and socio-cultural milieu in Essaouira in the south-west of Morocco. The objective of this paper is to identify, among others, the notorious impacts of mass tourism on fragile destinations in terms of their load capacity, promotion of youth employment and respect for indigenous traditions. This study also aims to assess the influence of tourism on certain destinations that depend, to a large extent, on this activity. It also seeks to test a series of indicators germane to sustainable development in sensitive areas. Within results, it was found that tourism, as an industry, is related to the international community and the tested sustainable development indicators revealed that tourism is environmentally destructive. Job creators in this field contributed to the changes that occurred in the indigenous people’s lives and the state’s intervention was of paramount significance to preserve the existence of a potential vanishing culture.
Sustainable Tourism, Essaouira, Destination, Socio-Cultural Environment
To cite this article
Hadach Mohamed, Ed-Dali Rachid, Assessing Sustainable Tourism: Trends and Efforts in Essaouira in Morocco as a Coastal City, International Journal of Sustainability Management and Information Technologies. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2019, pp. 23-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsmit.20190501.14
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Asmelash, A. G., & Kumar, S. (2019). Assessing progress of tourism sustainability: Developing and validating sustainability indicators. Tourism Management, 71, 67-83.
Bramwell, B., & Lane, B. (Eds.). (2000). Tourism collaboration and partnerships: Politics, practice and sustainability (No. 2). Channel View Publications.
Bramwell, B., & Lane, B. (2011). Critical research on the governance of tourism and sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19 (4-5), 411-421.
Briassoulis, H. (2002). Sustainable tourism and the question of the commons. Annals of tourism research, 29 (4), 1065-1085.
Burns, P. M., & Sancho, M. M. (2003). Local perceptions of tourism planning: The case of Cuellar, Spain. Tourism Management, 24 (3), 331-339.
Byrd, E. T., Bosley, H. E., & Dronberger, M. G. (2009). Comparisons of stakeholder perceptions of tourism impacts in rural eastern North Carolina. Tourism Management, 30 (5), 693-703.
Chetouani, A., Hammouti, B., Benhadda, T., & Daoudi, M. (2005). Inhibitive action of bipyrazolic type organic compounds towards corrosion of pure iron in acidic media. Applied Surface Science, 249 (1-4), 375-385.
Choi, H. C., & Murray, I. (2010). Resident attitudes toward sustainable community tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18 (4), 575-594.
Cole, S. (2006). Information and empowerment: The keys to achieving sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14 (6), 629-644.
Currie, R. R., Seaton, S., & Wesley, F. (2009). Determining stakeholders for feasibility analysis. Annals of Tourism Research, 36 (1), 41-63.
Favreau, L., & Tremblay, D. (2001). Conjoncture internationale, société civile, économie sociale et solidaire dans une perspective Nord-Sud. Hull: Université du Québec à Hull, Chaire de recherche en développement communautaire.
Friedman, A. L., & Miles, S. (2006). Stakeholders: Theory and practice. Oxford University Press.
Hales, R., & Jennings, G. (2017). Transformation for sustainability: The role of complexity in tourism students' understanding of sustainable tourism. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 21, 185-194.
Hall, C. M. (1999). Rethinking collaboration and partnership: A public policy perspective. Journal of sustainable tourism, 7 (3-4), 274-289.
He, P., He, Y., & Xu, F. (2018). Evolutionary analysis of sustainable tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 69, 76-89.
Hong, S., & Ryu, J. (2019). Crowdfunding public projects: Collaborative governance for achieving citizen co-funding of public goods. Government Information Quarterly, 36 (1), 145-153.
Jamal, T. B., & Getz, D. (1995). Collaboration theory and community tourism planning. Annals of tourism research, 22 (1), 186-204.
Jayawardena, C. (2003). Sustainable tourism development in Canada: practical challenges. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 15 (7), 408-412.
Lee, T. H., & Jan, F. H. (2019). Can community-based tourism contribute to sustainable development? Evidence from residents’ perceptions of the sustainability. Tourism Management, 70, 368-380.
Li, Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, D., & Abrahams, R. (2019). Mediating urban transition through rural tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 75, 152-164.
Matarrita-Cascante, D., Brennan, M. A., & Luloff, A. E. (2010). Community agency and sustainable tourism development: The case of La Fortuna, Costa Rica. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18 (6), 735-756.
MacNeill, T., & Wozniak, D. (2018). The economic, social, and environmental impacts of cruise tourism. Tourism Management, 66, 387-404.
Palmer, J., Cooper, I., & van der Vorst, R. (1997). Mapping out fuzzy buzzwords-who sits where on sustainability and sustainable development. Sustainable Development, 5(2), 87-93.
Pan, S. Y., Gao, M., Kim, H., Shah, K. J., Pei, S. L., & Chiang, P. C. (2018). Advances and challenges in sustainable tourism toward a green economy. Science of the Total Environment, 635, 452-469.
Pizam, A. (1978). Tourism's impacts: The social costs to the destination community as perceived by its residents. Journal of travel research, 16 (4), 8-12.
Pulido-Fernández, J. I., Cárdenas-García, P. J., & Espinosa-Pulido, J. A. (2019). Does environmental sustainability contribute to tourism growth? An analysis at the country level. Journal of Cleaner Production, 213, 309-319.
Richards, G., & Hall, D. (2000). The community: A sustainable concept in tourism development. Tourism and sustainable community development, 7, 1-13.
Russell, R., & Faulkner, B. (2004). Entrepreneurship, chaos and the tourism area lifecycle. Annals of Tourism Research, 31 (3), 556-579.
Simpson, K. (2001). Strategic planning and community involvement as contributors to sustainable tourism development. Current Issues in Tourism, 4 (1), 3-41.
Vargas-Sánchez, A., Plaza-Mejia, M. D. L.Á., & Porras-Bueno, N. (2009). Understanding residents' attitudes toward the development of industrial tourism in a former mining community. Journal of Travel Research, 47 (3), 373–387.
Vereczi, G. (2004). Indicators to measure sustainable tourism. 7th International Forum on Tourism Statistics.
Vernon, J., Essex, S., Pinder, D., & Curry, K. (2005). Collaborative policymaking: Local sustainable projects. Annals of Tourism Research, 32 (2), 325-345.
Waligo, V. M., Clarke, J., & Hawkins, R. (2013). Implementing sustainable tourism: A multi-stakeholder involvement management framework. Tourism Management, 36, 342-353.
World Tourism Organization (2002). Tourism and poverty reduction. Madrid: WTO.
Browse journals by subject